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【必达对话·KPF建筑事务所】学术建筑要因地制宜,灵活多变

成功源自合作与对话——这是KPF一贯秉承的设计哲理,因为其相信:相互认同的设计理念造就因地制宜的设计手法,从而成就与环境和谐共生的建筑作品。今天BEED邀请到KPF事务所为大家介绍KPF,让大家更直观地了解KPF。

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B:BEED ASIA
K:KPF建筑事务所

B:对于一家全球布局的设计公司来说, KPF 如何看待中国教育设施设计的现状和未来发展?如何评价中国教育设施和外国教育设施建筑的不同?学校建筑如何才能满足不同教育文化背景的需求?
As a global design firm, how does KPF think about the current state and future development of Chinese education facility design? How can you evaluate the differences of school building between China and foreign countries? How can you balance the needs under the different cultures?

K:我们在设计位于深圳的北京大学国际法学院时,就了解到中国的学术建筑普遍采用封闭式校园,从一个安全点进入,聚集在某一个中心位置。感觉有人从门户把你领进校园,正因为这一列队般的体验,强烈的第一印象也油然而生。无论是哪个专业的建筑,看起来都是那么熟悉。在KPF我们的宗旨是运用同样的基因组成,打造各有千秋却又属于同一个大家庭的建筑。我们还看到无论是东西方文化,老式建筑都倾向于将规模千篇一律的教室布置在走廊的两边。我们提倡学术建筑采用新模型,包括教室规模,从大型调研报告厅到小型研讨会教室,要因地制宜,灵活多变。
When we designed Peking University in Shenzhen, we learned that academic buildings in China were typically closed campuses, entered through a secure point and gathering at a central place. A strong first impression is made because of the procession-like quality of the experience – a portal bringing you into the campus. Each of the buildings also looked very similar, regardless of their discipline. At KPF we aim to use the same genetic make-up, creating buildings that are differentiated but belonging to the same family. We’ve also seen, both in Eastern and Western cultures, a tendency for older buildings to have double-loaded corridors with one-size classrooms. We embrace anew model for academic buildings that includes varying classroom sizes, ranging from large survey auditoriums to intimate seminar classrooms.

University of Michigan (2)

只要谈及中国教育设施设计的未来发展,我们就有兴趣在全球范围招贤纳士。与其 说是定位在某一特定的文化背景,如今就连学校也在纷纷定位特定的年龄段—— 整整一代人都在响应和期待技术与主动学习挂钩,而非一成不变。
As far as thefuture development in Chinese education facility design, we are all interestedin appealing to the global citizen. Rather than a specific culture,schools are now targeting a specific age group – a generation that responds to and expects the integration of technology and active learning versus static.

University of Minnesota Science, Teaching, and Student Services

B:能否详细介绍一项由 KPF设计的比较有名气的教育建筑案例?在中国或国外的项目均可。介绍内容希望包括设计理念、设计图、效果图等图片和说明文字。
Could you introduce one famous case in education area of Kohn Pedersen Fox? We hope you can share more details like the concept,drawing, effect pictures, descriptions etc.

K:我们对密歇根大学罗斯商学院尤为自豪。商学院往往是校园中最具创新的建筑群,为更广阔的社区和专业天地架起衔接的桥梁。罗斯商学院坐落在世界顶尖大学的大型校区中。在安阿伯市,我们的任务就是营造一个可以常年使用的大型灵活场所,可以举办各种活动和专题座谈会,为师生和社区之间的人际交往创造便利条件。因此,我们设计了一座大型阳光花园,为发表演说、学生集会创造环境,成为师生课余时间流连的好去处。我们知道这一举措已经在密歇根大学取得了巨大的成功,因为其他院校的学生现在也定期来商学院自习。
We are particularly proud of the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan. Business schools are often some of the most innovative buildings on campus and serve as means for creating connections to the larger community and the professional world. The Ross School of Business is on a large campus, which is among the top universities in the world. In Ann Arbor, our task was to create a large and flexible space that could be used year-round, accommodating events and colloquiums and initiating chance meetings between students, faculty and the community. So we designed a large winter garden that creates an environment that can host speakers, gather students, and become a place to hang out during down-time. We know this has been immensely successful at UM because students from the campus’ other graduate schools now regularly go to the business school to study.

ASU McCord Hall
Ross School of Business (4)
B:在中国,如果一个社区有一所非常好的学校,那么整体房价就会更高。您认为,学校或教育项目对刺激社区再次发展是否有一定作用呢?
In China, if there is good school in a residential community, the house prices will be higher. Do you think the school can be the catalyst for regeneration and community Engagement?

K:绝对是这样的,即使在美国也是如此。学校是再生的催化剂,而且是推动社区参与的绝佳场所。且不说是教书育人的场所,学校设施还能吸引众多的机构和举办各种活动,演变为资源,社区就应该有开放场所,能够让访问学者举办讲座,承接市镇会议。尤其是经过深思熟虑的规划设计,学校必将成为健康社区的枢纽。
Absolutely and the same is certainly true in America. Schools are an excellent catalyst for regeneration and are the best venues for promoting community engagement. Apart from being a place to educate our students,school facilities attract many agencies and activities and becomes a resource the community – a place to have open houses, lectures from visiting speakers and town meetings. Especially with thoughtful planning and design, the school becomes a hub for healthy communities.

NYU Shanghai (1)

B:目前国内有很多负面新闻关于学校建设,例如有毒跑道踩踏事故,化工污染空气质量差雾霾等暴露了在前期设计、选材等各种问题。你们在选材或设计时,会如何选择呢?是否有一些具体化的标准呢?
The “Poison Playground Tracks” “the accident of stampede” “The bad quality of airand water “in the latest news of schools, it may expose the deficiency in terms of design and materials selection. Do you have some specific requirements in the building materials choosing?

K:我们会尽力而为,确保在校师生在我们设计的大楼中健康地工作、学习。这包括在空气质量好的位置设置活动窗,流通新鲜空气,而在空气质量较差的位置采用空调通风。我们尽量采用VOC含量较低的涂料和饰面,杜绝与有害化学品接触。我们采用的其他手法有绿化,包括绿植和绿植墙。我们也很关注设施使用人员的情绪。这包括让教室、办公室和公共空间射入充足的日光。
We do everything we can to make sure our buildings are as healthy for the students and faculty that work in them as possible. This includes operable windows for fresh air in locations with good air quality, but also conditioned air in locations withpoor air quality. As often as possible,we use paints and finishes with low v.o.c.s to diminish exposure to harmfulchemicals. Other tools that we utilize is greenery including plants and live walls. We’re also concerned with theemotion wellness of the inhabitants of our facility. This includes providing ample sunlight into classrooms, offices, and common spaces.

NYU Shanghai (2)
B:在教育项目上,KPF做的更多的是那一部分?规划、建筑、设计、施工还是室内设计?
Which part does KPF focus in an education project? Planning, Architecture, design,construction, interior design?

K:除了实体施工以外,KPF能够完成项目的其他各部。我们在各阶段施工管理中都秉承事无巨细的工作原则。在很多案例中,我们曾负责项目选址、规划、设计、施工和室内设计等一系列服务。我们还密切关注设施内各用房的功能安排与设计。这就需要我们掌握院系、学院或大学的当前需要,而且要为日后预留一定的灵活余地。
KPF has the capability to complete every part of our projects with theexception of the physical construction. We contribute at each phase through construction administration with close attention to detail. In many cases, we’ve been responsible for site selection, planning, design,construction and interior design. We also pay close attention to programming and the design of each room within our facilities. This means directly understanding the current needs of a department, school, or university, but also creating flexibility for the future.

Collegiate School
B:现在越来越多的设计事务所开始从商业建筑项目转向公建项目,特别是教育领域。您认为这个转变的原因在于什么呢?这个情况是只在中国发生,还是你们其他地区的分支机构都在寻找学校项目呢?
Now more and more designing firms shift the emphasis to education market from commercial market?Do you think what the reason is? Is it also happening in your other offices?

K:学术建筑的重要性不言而喻,但在具体的设计工作中也面临各自的挑战,其中包括增加建筑的协同作用,工作和个人生活两不误等。越来越多的学校寻求专业培训与商业领地的整合,其最终的结果就是培养出更多合格的毕业生。学校可以说是孵化器——一个让研、教、商在同一个屋檐下周而复始的地方。
Academic buildings have always been important, having specific design challenges that often include increasing the synergy of buildings and blending work and personal life. More and more school seek to integrate professional training with the commercial realm, which eventually produces more qualified graduates. Schools are incubators – a place with a cycle ofresearch, teaching and business that all occurs under one roof.

Ross School of Business (3)

B:比较K12中小学项目和高等教育项目,你们更倾向哪一类呢?什么原因?
Comparing K12education with Higher education project? Which one you prefer?

K:我们的学校项目大部分为大学。我们设计过几个K12的项目,但大多数是自有融资渠道的私立学校。总而言之,公立学校项目有一整套具体的要求,由纳税人出资。大学和K12私立学校的政策都比较宽松,建筑师、学校、学生和家人之间可以进行真正的合作,而这种模式又是由建筑设计和机构共同塑造的。
Wework mostly on university projects. We have designed a few K-12 projects,but mostly for private schools that have their own funding. In general,working for public schools comes with a specific set of requirements and are atthe whim of the tax payers. Universities and private K-12 have fewer tight stipulations, which means these projects can be true collaborations between architects, the schools and the students and their families that will be shaped by both the architectural design and the institution.

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